Discover What is Britain history since 1945including:
- What was the establishment of the welfare state?
- Who was Clement Attlee?
- Who was William Beveridge?
- Who was R A Butler?
- Who was Dylan Thomas?
- What was migration in post-war Britain?
- What was Britain’s social changes in the 60s?
- What was British inventions of the 20th century?
- What was the economic problems facing the UK the 70’s?
- Who was Mary Peters?
- What was Europe Common market?
- What was the Conservative government in the 80’s and 90’s?
- Who was Margaret Thatcher?
- Who was Roald Dahl?
- What was the Labour party from 1997 to 2010?
- What was the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq?
- What was the coalition government 2010 onwards?
What was the establishment of the welfare state?
Discover what was the establishment of the welfare state including:
- UK had won the war but was exhausted economically and people wanted change and wider social reforms (started during the war)
- in 1945 the British people elected a Labour government with Clement Attlee as the new Prime Minister who promised to introduce the welfare state outlined in the Beveridge Report
- National Health Service (NHS): in 1948 Aneurin (Nye) Bevan the Minister for Health established a public service which guaranteed for everyone a free minimum standard of health care
- social security: a national system of benefits so that the population would be protected from the ‘cradle to the grave’
- nationalisation: government took into public ownership the railways, coal mines and gas, water and electricity supplies
- former colonies self-government (1947): independence was granted to nine countries, including India, Pakistan and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and other colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific achieved independence over the next 20 years
- UK developed its own atomic bomb and joined the new North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an alliance of nations set up to resist the perceived threat of invasion by the Soviet Union and its allies
- Britain had a Conservative government from 1951 to 1964, with the 1950s a period of economic recovery with increased prosperity for working people.
- Prime Minister of the day, Harold Macmillan, was famous for his “wind of change” speech about decolonisation and independence for the countries of the Empire.
Who was Clement Attlee?
Discover who was Clement Attlee including:
- born in London in 1883 with father a solicitor
- study at Oxford University and became a barrister but gave this up to do social work in East London and eventually became a Labour MP
- was Winston Churchill’s Deputy Prime Minister in the wartime coalition government and became Prime Minister after the Labour Party won the 1945 election
- became Prime Minister from 1945 to 1951 and led the Labour Party for 20 years
- his government undertook the nationalisation of major industries (coal and steel), created and created a stronger welfare state with the NHS and improved workers conditions (Beveridge’s plans).
Who was William Beveridge?
Discover who was William Beveridge including:
- British economist and social reformer
- served briefly as a Liberal MP and was subsequently the leader of the Liberals in the House of Lord
- best known for the 1942 Beveridge Report (Social Insurance and Allied Services) commissioned by the wartime government in 1941and which recommended that the government should find ways of fighting the five “Giant Evils” of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness and provided the basis of the modern welfare state.
Who was R A Butler?
Discover Who was R A Butler including:
- born in 1902 became a Conservative MP in 1923
- become responsible for education in 1941 where he introduced of the Education Act 1944 (often called The Butler Act) which introduced free secondary education in England and Wales.
- division between primary and secondary schools still remains in most areas of Britain.
Who was Dylan Thomas?
Discover who was Dylan Thomas including:
- Welsh poet and writer
- often read and performed his work in public, including for the BBC
- most well-known works include the radio play Under Milk Wood (first performed after his death in 1954) and the poem Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, which he wrote for his dying father in 1952
- died at the age of 39 in New York
- there are several memorials to him in his birthplace, Swansea, including a statue and the Dylan Thomas Centre
What was migration in post-war Britain?
Discover what was migration in post-war Britain including:
- labour shortages to rebuild Britain after the Second World War
- reconstruction help: government encourages workers from Ireland and other parts of Europe to come to the UK
- 1948: people from West Indies also invited to come and work
- 1950s: still labour shortage and further Immigration encouraged
- West Indies centres set up to recruit people to drive buses
- India and Pakistan workers for Textile and engineering firms in the north of England and the Midlands
- for about 25 years, people from the West Indies, India, Pakistan and (later) Bangladesh travelled to work and settle in Britain
What was Britain’s social changes in the 60s?
Discover What was Britain’s social changes in the 60s including?
- The decade of the 1960s was a period of significant social change. It was known as ‘the Swinging Sixties’. There was growth in British fashion, cinema and popular music.
- Two well-known pop music groups at the time were The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. People started to become better off and many bought cars and other consumer goods.
- social laws liberalised: new laws passed in relation to divorce and to abortion in England, Wales and Scotland.
- position of women in the workplace also improved with new laws giving women the right to equal pay and made it illegal for employers to discriminate against women because of their gender.
- time of technological progress. Britain and France developed the world’s only supersonic commercial airliner, Concorde
- New styles of architecture: high-rise buildings and the use of concrete and steel
- migration restriction : new laws limits to immigration from the West Indies, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
- early 1970s: Britain admitted 28,000 people from Uganda of Indian origin who had been forced to leave
What was British great inventions of the 20th century?
Discover what was British great inventions of the 20th century including:
- television was developed by Scotsman John Logie Baird in the 1920s and in 1932 he made the first television broadcast between London and Glasgow
- Radar was developed by Scotsman Sir Robert Watson-Watt in 1935who proposed that enemy aircraft could be detected by radio waves
- radio telescope built by Sir Bernard Lovell was for many years the biggest in the world and continues to operate today
- Turing machine invented by Alan Turing is a theoretical mathematical device which later influenced the development of computer science and the modern-day computer
- insulin used to treat diabetes was co-discoverer by the Scottish physician and researcher John Macleod.
- DNA molecule structure was discovered in 1953 through work at British universities in London and Cambridge and Francis Crick was one of those awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery
- jet engine was developed in the 1930s by Sir Frank Whittle a British Royal Air Force engineer officer
- hovercraft was invented the in the 1950s by Sir Christopher Cockerell a British inventor
- Concorde developed by both Britain and France was the world’s only supersonic passenger aircraft, first flew in 1969, began carrying passengers in 1976 and retired from service in 2003
- Harrier jump jet an aircraft capable of taking off vertically was designed in the UK
- ATM the automatic teller machine was invented by James Goodfellow in the 1960s (first of these was put into use by Barclays Bank in Enfield, north London in 1967)
- IVF (in-vitro fertilisation) therapy for the treatment of infertility was pioneered in Britain by physiologist Sir Robert Edwards (1925—) and gynaecologist Patrick Steptoe (1913—88). The world’s first ‘test-tube baby’ was born in Oldham, Lancashire in 1978.
- Dolly sheep cloning was the first successful mammal cloning performed in 1996 by two British scientists, Sir Ian Wilmot and Keith Campbell
- MRI the magnetic resonance imaging scanner was co-invented by Sir Peter Mansfield and revolutionised diagnostic medicine by enabling doctors and researchers to obtain exact and non-invasive images of human internal organs
- World Wide Web was invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee on 25 December 1990 when information was successfully transferred via the web for the first time
What was the economic problems facing the UK in the 70’s?
Discover what was the economic problems facing the UK in the 70’s including:
- In the late 1970s, the post-war economic boom came to an end. Prices of goods and raw materials began to rise sharply and the exchange rate between the pound and other currencies was unstable. This caused problems with the ‘balance of payments’: imports of goods were valued at more than the price paid for exports.
- Many industries and services were affected by strikes and this caused problems between the trade unions and the government. People began to argue that the unions were too powerful and that their activities were harming the UK.
- The 1970s were also a time of serious unrest in Northern Ireland. In 1972, the Northern Ireland Parliament was suspended and Northern Ireland was directly ruled by the UK government. Some 3,000 people lost their lives in the decades after 1969 in the violence in Northern Ireland.
Who was Mary Peters?
Discover who was Mary Peters including:
- Born in Manchester, Mary Peters moved to Northern Ireland as a child.
- talented athlete who won an Olympic gold medal in the pentathlon in 1972
- she raised money for local athletics and became the team manager for the women’s British Olympic team
- continues to promote sport and tourism in Northern Ireland
- was made a Dame of the British Empire in 2000 in recognition of her work
What was Europe Common market?
Discover what was Europe Common market including:
- EEC European Economic Community (1957) in was formed by West Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands formed the
- first the UK did not wish to join the EEC but it eventually did so in 1973
- UK is a full member of the European Union but does not use the Euro currency
What was the Conservative government in the 80’s and 90’s?
Margaret Thatcher, privatisation, deregulation, Northern Ireland peace process
Discover what was the Conservative government in the 80’s and 90’s including:
- Margaret Thatcher, Britain’s first woman Prime Minister, led the Conservative government from 1979 to 1990
- privatisation of nationalised industries and imposed legal controls on trade union powers and decline of traditional industries (shipbuilding and coal mining)
- Deregulation increased the role of the City of London as an international centre for investments, insurance and other financial services
- Falkland invasion (1982): Argentina invaded the British overseas territory in the South Atlantic and a naval taskforce was sent to recover the islands
- Northern Ireland peace process was establish by John Major, Prime Minister after Mrs Thatcher
Who was Margaret Thatcher?
Conservative MP in 1959, Britain’s first woman Prime Minister,
Discover who was Margaret Thatcher including:
- daughter of a grocer from Grantham in Lincolnshire who trained as a chemist and lawyer
- elected as a Conservative MP in 1959 and became a cabinet minister in 1970 as the Secretary of State for Education and Science
- elected as Leader of the Conservative Party (Leader of the Opposition) in 1975
- became Britain’s first woman Prime Minister of the UK following the Conservative victory in the General Election in 1979 and remaining in office until 1990 (longest-serving Prime Minister of the 20th century)
- she made important economic reforms, worked closely with the USA President Ronald Reagan and welcomed changes in the Soviet Union leadership which eventually led to the end of the Cold War
Who was Roald Dahl?
Discover who was Roald Dahl including:
- Roald Dahl was born in Wales to Norwegian parents
- served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War
- began to publish books and short stories in the 1940s
- best known for his children’s books including Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and George’s Marvellous Medicine
What was the Labour party from 1997 to 2010?
1997, Tony Blair, Labour Party, Scottish Parliament, Good Friday Agreement, Northern Ireland Assembly, Gordon Brown
Discover what was the Labour party from 1997 to 2010including:
- 1997 Tony Blair was elected leading the Labour Party
- introduced a Scottish Parliament substantial powers to legislate and a Welsh Assembly with fewer legislative powers but considerable control over public services.
- Good Friday Agreement signed in 1998 in Northern Ireland was facilitated by the Blair government
- Northern Ireland Assembly was elected in 1999, suspended in 2002 and reinstated until 2007 when most paramilitary groups became inactive
- Gordon Brown took over as Prime Minister in 2007
What was the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq?
Discover what was the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq including:
- Throughout the 1990s, Britain played a leading role in coalition forces involved in the liberation of Kuwait, following the Iraqi invasion in 1990, and the conflict in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia.
- Since 2000, British armed forces have been engaged in the global fight against international terrorism and against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. British combat troops left Iraq in 2009.
- The UK now operates in Afghanistan as part of the United Nations (UN) mandated 50-nation International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) coalition and at the invitation of the Afghan government.
- ISAF is working to ensure that Afghan territory can never again be used as a safe haven for international terrorism, where groups such as AI Qa’ida could plan attacks on the international community.
- As part of this, ISAF is building up the Afghan National Security Forces and is helping to create a secure environment in which governance and development can be extended. International forces are gradually handing over responsibility for security to the Afghans, who will have full security responsibility in all provinces by the end of 2014.
What was the coalition government 2010 onwards?
Discover what was the coalition government 2010 onwards including:
- In May 2010, and for the first time in the UK since February 1974, no political party won an overall majority in the General Election.
- The Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties formed a coalition and the leader of the Conservative Party, David Cameron, became Prime Minister.